Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is a rare form of panniculitis that generally occurs in term or post-term otherwise healthy newborns within the 6 weeks of life. Lesions are mostly found on the face, shoulders, back and buttock, may be single or multiple and appear as erythematous-violaceous plaques/nodules. Resolved lesions appear atrophic. Several postulated predisposing factors include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, maternal use of calcium-channel blockers or cocaine, meconium aspiration, umbilical cord prolapse, Rh incompatibility, hypothermia, obstetric trauma, localized tissue hypoxia and neonatal asphyxia.
Reference: Milena Pires de Campos Luciano Gomes et al. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: clinical manifestations in two cases. An Bras Dermatol. 2013 Nov-Dec; 88(6 Suppl 1): 154-157.